Rules, Regulations and Punishments

From the Rules and Regulations of Bradwall Reformatory School – written by Sydney Turner on 23rd March 1871 and approved by H.A. Bruce, being Secretary of State in Whitehall on the 28th March 1871.:

“The School shall be under the superintendence of the Manager, who shall have the power of receiving or rejecting such boys as he shall think fit or unfit objects for the benefit of the School, and of appointing and dismissing the Officers thereof.

That in case of the probable absence or illness of the Manager, he may delegate his powers to some other person, and shall report the fact to the Inspector of Reformatory Schools.

The number of boys maintained in the School shall not exceed 70.

That no boy shall be admitted, unless free from fits and mental and physical infirmity, nor, except under special circumstances to be decided upon by the Manager, under 11 years of age.

The inmates shall have separate beds, and be supplied with a sufficiency of plain clothing.

The inmates shall have a sufficiency of food according to a Dietary to be approved by the Inspector. No substantial alteration to the Dietary shall be made without previous notice to him.

The Hours of the School and Labour shall be according to a time table, to be approved by the Inspector. It being understood that such hours may be varied in special case, and in accordance with the requirements of season or the weather.

The Secular Instruction shall consist of Reading, Spelling, Writing and Arithmetic, with such more advanced subjects as age and capabilities of the Inmates may admit of. The Secular Instruction shall be given on week days, and shall average 18 hours in each week. The Religious Instructions shall be from Holy Scripture and shall comprise the Doctrines and Precepts of Christianity. The industrial training shall be in such matters as are included in the practical working of a farm.

Each day shall be begun and ended with Family Worship, consisting of Prayer and Reading of Scripture. On Sunday, the inmates shall attend the Parish Church. On the written request of the Parent of any boy who is of some other religious persuasion than the Church of England, a Minister of such religious persuasion shall be allowed to visit such boy, and such boy shall not be compelled to learn the Catechism of any other religious persuasion, provided however that the fact of the difference of creed shall have been specified in the order of detention.

The Superintendent shall be allowed to punish any boy detained in the School in case of misconduct. All faults and punishments being entered in a book kept for the purpose.

Ordinary punishment may consist of Forfeiture of Rewards and Privileges, Fines, Reduction in quantity and quality of Food, Confinement in a separate room or cell for not more than three days, and moderate Personal Correction. But no boy in Confinement shall be allowed less than 1-lb. of bread daily, and in case of cold weather he shall be allowed one hot meal in the day.

In case any boy being guilty of any offence for the due punishment of which the Superintendent shall consider the foregoing powers inadequate, he shall report the same to the Manager, who shall have the power to cause the boy to be Confined in a cell for not more than 14 days, and shall be allowed not less than 1 1/2-lbs. of Bread and Gruel, and Milk or Water each day; and if Confined more than seven days shall be visited by the Medical Officer of the School, and allowed such additional diet as he shall direct.

The Parents of the Boys shall be allowed to visit them on any day except Sunday, at such hours as may be from time to time settled by the Manager. Such privilege shall be forfeited by interference with the discipline of the School or other misconduct, nor be granted if the boy be under punishment.

The Boys may be allowed from time to time to visit their Relatives. Any Boy so allowed and stopping beyond the time appointed for his return, shall be held to have absconded from the School.

That the Superintendent shall have the Boys, and to detain any which, in his opinion, contain anything likely to be hurtful to the Boy.

That Boys shall be provided with places on their discharge as far as is practicable, and their conduct deserves. That an outfit shall be given to the Boys on leaving for a place, either from the funds of the School or their own savings; and if returned to Relatives and Friends the expenses of such return shall be defrayed from the same sources.

That the money credited to the Boys from time to time, as wages or rewards, shall be at the disposal of the Manager until their final discharge, to be used for their advantage as he thinks best. That the Superintendent shall keep a book for each boy, containing his rewards and the disbursements on his account, which book shall be open to the inspection of each Boy at convenient intervals.

That Visitors may be permitted to Inspect the School at convenient times to be appointed by the Manager.

The Superintendent shall keep a Punishment Book, an account of the time and manner in which the boys are employed each day, a record of all entries and discharges, a list of all marks gained by the boys in labour, school, and general conduct, a statement of the receipts and payments on the general account, and a Cash Book for the Farm, all of which Books shall be presented to the Manager from time to time.

A Medical Officer shall be appointed to visit the School. He shall enter his visits in a Book to be kept for that purpose, with a note of all serious cases of illness attended by him in the School.

In case of the sudden death of any Boy, an Inquest shall be held, and the circumstances of the case reported to the Inspector.

The Superintendent shall regularly send to the Office of the Inspector (under cover to the Secretary of State for the Home Department), the Returns of Admissions and Discharges, the Quarterly List of the Boys under detention, and the Quarterly Account for their maintenance, with such other Returns as the Secretary of State may from time to time require.

All Books and Journals shall be open to the Inspector for perusal. Any Teacher employed in the School Instruction shall be examined by him, if he thinks it necessary. Notice shall be given to him of the dismissal or change of the Superintendent and Schoolmaster and a yearly Statement of the Receipts and Expenditure of the School, shewing all liabilities, vouched by the MAnager, shall be sent to him in the January of each year.

All Masters employed in the School shall be under the authority of the Superintendent, who shall be answerable for their conduct, and for their being, if resident in the School House, at home at proper hours.

Any Boy who shall be off the School premises, without leave from a Master, on any pretext, shall be considered as guilty of the offence of Absconding, and all money given him by friends, or otherwise obtained, shall be given to the Superintendent, who shall enter it into the Boy’s Book.

The Superintendent and Masters of the School shall be careful to maintain due order and discipline, and shall attend to the instructions and training of the Boys in conformity with the above Regulations. Every Boy in the School under detention shall obey the Superintendent and Masters, and comply with the regulations of the Manager, as sanctioned by the Secretary of State. Any wilful neglect or refusal on the part of any Boy to obey or comply therewith, shall be deemed to be an offence under the 20th sec. of the Reformatory School Act, 1866.”

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